有效的学习并练习关于段落理解

Questions 1 – 4 refer to the following passage.

Passage 1: “If You Have Allergies, You’re Not Alone”

People who experience allergies might joke that their immune systems have let them down or are seriously lacking. Truthfully though, people who experience allergic reactions or allergy symptoms during certain times of the year have heightened immune systems that are, “better” than those of people who have perfectly healthy but less militant immune systems.

Still, when a person has an allergic reaction, they are having an adverse reaction to a substance that is considered normal to most people. Mild allergic reactions usually have symptoms like itching, runny nose, red eyes, or bumps or discoloration of the skin. More serious allergic reactions, such as those to animal and insect poisons or certain foods, may result in the closing of the throat, swelling of the eyes, low blood pressure, an inability to breathe, and can even be fatal.

Different treatments help different allergies, and which one a person uses depends on the nature and severity of the allergy. It is recommended to patients with severe allergies to take extra precautions, such as carrying an EpiPen, which treats anaphylactic shock and may prevent death, always in order for the remedy to be readily available and more effective. When an allergy is not so severe, treatments may be used just relieve a person of uncomfortable symptoms. Over the counter allergy medicines treat milder symptoms, and can be bought at any grocery store and used in moderation to help people with allergies live normally.

There are many tests available to assess whether a person has allergies or what they may be allergic to, and advances in these tests and the medicine used to treat patients continues to improve. Despite this fact, allergies still affect many people throughout the year or even every day. Medicines used to treat allergies have side effects of their own, and it is difficult to bring the body into balance with the use of medicine. Regardless, many of those who live with allergies are grateful for what is available and find it useful in maintaining their lifestyles.

1. According to this passage, it can be understood that the word “militant” belongs in a group with the words:

a. sickly, ailing, faint
b. strength, power, vigor
c. active, fighting, warring
d. worn, tired, breaking down

2. The author says that “medicines used to treat allergies have side effects of their own” to

a. point out that doctors aren’t very good at diagnosing and treating allergies
b. argue that because of the large number of people with allergies, a cure will never be found
c. explain that allergy medicines aren’t cures and some compromise must be made
d. argue that more wholesome remedies should be researched and medicines banned

3. It can be inferred that _______ recommend that some people with allergies carry medicine with them.

a. the author
b. doctors
c. the makers of EpiPen
d. people with allergies

4. The author has written this passage to

a. inform readers on symptoms of allergies so people with allergies can get help
b. persuade readers to be proud of having allergies
c. inform readers on different remedies so people with allergies receive the right help
d. describe different types of allergies, their symptoms, and their remedies

Questions 5 – 8 refer to the following passage.

Passage 2: “When a Poet Longs to Mourn, He Writes an Elegy”

Poems are an expressive, especially emotional, form of writing. They have been present in literature virtually from the time civilizations invented the written word. Poets often portrayed as moody, secluded, and even troubled, but this is because poets are introspective and feel deeply about the current events and cultural norms they are surrounded with. Poets often produce the most telling literature, giving insight into the society and mind-set they come from. This can be done in many forms.

The oldest types of poems often include many stanzas, may or may not rhyme, and are more about telling a story than experimenting with language or words. The most common types of ancient poetry are epics, which are usually extremely long stories that follow a hero through his journey, or elegies, which are often solemn in tone and used to mourn or lament something or someone. The Mesopotamians are often said to have invented the written word, and their literature is among the oldest in the world, including the epic poem titled “Epic of Gilgamesh.” Similar in style and length to “Gilgamesh” is “Beowulf,” an elegy poem written in Old English and set in Scandinavia. These poems are often used by professors as the earliest examples of literature.

The importance of poetry was revived in the Renaissance. At this time, Europeans discovered the style and beauty of ancient Greek arts, and poetry was among those. Shakespeare is the most well-known poet of the time, and he used poetry not only to write poems but also to write plays for the theater. The most popular forms of poetry during the Renaissance included villanelles (a nineteen-line poem with two rhymes throughout), sonnets, as well as the epic. Poets during this time focused on style and form, and developed very specific rules and outlines for how an exceptional poem should be written.

As often happens in the arts, modern poets have rejected the constricting rules of Renaissance poets, and free form poems are much more popular. Some modern poems would read just like stories if they weren’t arranged into lines and stanzas. It is difficult to tell which poems and poets will be the most important, because works of art often become more famous in hindsight, after the poet has died and society can look at itself without being in the moment. Modern poetry continues to develop, and will no doubt continue to change as values, thought, and writing continue to change.

Poems can be among the most enlightening and uplifting texts for a person to read if they are looking to connect with the past, connect with other people, or try to gain an understanding of what is happening in their time.

5. In summary, the author has written this passage

a. as a foreword that will introduce a poem in a book or magazine
b. because she loves poetry and wants more people to like it
c. to give a brief history of poems
d. to convince students to write poems

6. The author organizes the paragraphs mainly by

a. moving chronologically, explaining which types of poetry were common in that time
b. talking about new types of poems each paragraph and explaining them a little
c. focusing on one poet or group of people and the poems they wrote
d. explaining older types of poetry so she can talk about modern poetry

7. The author’s claim that poetry has been around “virtually from the time civilizations invented the written word” is supported by the detail that

a. Beowulf is written in Old English, which is not really in use any longer
b. epic poems told stories about heroes
c. the Renaissance poets tried to copy Greek poets
d. the Mesopotamians are credited with both inventing the word and writing “Epic of Gilgamesh”

8. According to the passage, it can be understood that the word “telling” means

a. speaking
b. significant
c. soothing
d. wordy

应答键

文章 1:“If You Have Allergies, You’re Not Alone”
1. C
这个问题考察的是读者的词汇能力。否定词 “but” 和 “less” 的使用,特别是接连的使用,可能会导致读者选择A或者D,这两个都是 “militant” 的反义词。读者通过对比健康的人和极度健康的人可能会产生迷惑 – 两者都是健康的,但是读者在对比中可能会寻找出哪一个比较 “worse” ,因此错误的选择了反义词。理解 “militant” 的关键是,如果读者不熟悉这个单词,要去寻找这个词的词根;利用词根,读者可以很轻松的与 “military” 进行关联并且能得到这个词想表达的意思:防御(特别指在免疫系统中的身体抵抗)。与选项B相比,选项C是正确的,因为 “militant” 是一个形容词,与选项C中的词性相同,而选项B是名词。

This question tests the reader’s vocabulary skills. The uses of the negatives “but” and “less,” especially right next to each other, may confuse readers into answering with choices A or D, which list words that are antonyms of “militant.” Readers may also be confused by the comparison of healthy people with what is being described as an overly healthy person–both people are good, but the reader may look for which one is “worse” in the comparison, and therefore stray toward the antonyms. One key to understanding the meaning of “militant” if the reader is unfamiliar with it is to look at the root of the word; readers can then easily associate it with “military” and gain a sense of what the word signifies: defense (especially considered that the immune system defends the body). Choice C is correct over choice B because “militant” is an adjective, just as the words in C are, whereas the words in B are nouns.

2. C
这个问题考察的是读者对写作功能性的理解能力。其他选项的内容都是围绕着引用内容的具体细节,可能会对读者造成迷惑。选项A在某种程度上与文章之前的内容相悖,也就是测试和治疗在进步,也许医生也会和它们一同进步,但是文章中完全没有提及到医生,并且问题的中心是药品。对于不细心的读者来说,选项B看似是正确的,当作者提及到大量受影响的群体时,他突出指出的是现实中长期受过敏困扰的人群,而不是治疗各种过敏的可能性。同样的,当作者提到身体的 “balance”,很容易联想到“wholesome” ,但是作者实际上并没有争论或者下结论说抗过敏药物应当被全面禁止。并且,因为这篇文章的主旨是说过敏与生活的共存,因此选项C是相对于题目和文章内容最恰当的选项。

This question tests the reader’s understanding of function within writing. The other choices are details included surrounding the quoted text, and may therefore confuse the reader. A somewhat contradicts what is said earlier in the paragraph, which is that tests and treatments are improving, and probably doctors are along with them, but the paragraph doesn’t actually mention doctors, and the subject of the question is the medicine. Choice B may seem correct to readers who aren’t careful to understand that, while the author does mention the large number of people affected, the author is touching on the realities of living with allergies rather about the likelihood of curing all allergies. Similarly, while the author does mention the “balance” of the body, which is easily associated with “wholesome,” the author is not really making an argument and especially is not making an extreme statement that allergy medicines should be outlawed. Again, because the article’s tone is on living with allergies, choice C is an appropriate choice that fits with the title and content of the text.

3. B
这道题考察的是读者的推理能力。文章中并没有说谁在给出建议,但是通过“patients”的使用以及文章的大致内容,可以根据逻辑推理出选项B“doctors”。作者在文中提到了建议,但并不是通过直接的方式(例如“I recommend that”),所以选项A可以被删除掉。选项D看似是正确的,因为患有过敏疾病的人可以为其他过敏患者提供药品或产品的建议,但是文章中并没有支持相关内容的具体信息。选项C也可能是正确的,因为当中特别提到了EpiPen,但是介绍它的时候用到了词组“such as”,因此不足以证明建议是来自它的发明者。

This question tests the reader’s inference skills. The text does not state who is doing the recommending, but the use of the “patients,” as well as the general context of the passage, lends itself to the logical partner, “doctors,” B. The author does mention the recommendation but doesn’t present it as her own (i.e. “I recommend that”), so A may be eliminated. It may seem plausible that people with allergies (D) may recommend medicines or products to other people with allergies, but the text does not necessarily support this interaction taking place. Choice C may be selected because the EpiPen is specifically mentioned, but the use of the phrase “such as” when it is introduced is not limiting enough to assume the recommendation is coming from its creators.

4. D
这个问题考察的是读者对全文的统揽理解能力。选项D包含了三个段落的中心思想,但是这个选项并没有像其他三个选项一样,针对三段内容的任何一方面或者某一段文章内容,而是片面的给出了一个作者想传达的意思。由于文章的题目和“better”这个词的使用,读者还有可能选择B,但是文章想传达的是比这个词更大更整体的信息。

This question tests the reader’s global understanding of the text. Choice D includes the main topics of the three body paragraphs, and isn’t too focused on a specific aspect or quote from the text, as the other questions are, giving a skewed summary of what the author intended. The reader may be drawn to Choice B because of the title of the passage and the use of words like “better,” but the message of the passage is larger and more general than this.

文章2:“When a Poet Longs to Mourn, He Writes an Elegy”
5. C
这道题考察的是读者的概括能力。“actually”这个词的使用,在描述诗人是什么样的人时,以及其他类似的情况中,都有可能会引导读者去选择选项B或者D,但是实际上作者给出了更多支持的信息,而不是去劝说读者。读者没有给出任何指示说她喜爱诗歌(B)或者人们,特别是学生(D),需要写诗。选项A是不正确的,因为其中的类型和内容与序言的内容不符; 序言通常会根据强调特定的诗歌的历史背景和概念,来充分介绍诗的内容并且来凸显与其他诗歌的不同。这里作者根据几首诗给出了概括性的陈述。不同的是,她讲述了几个关于这几首诗的故事,如同选项C所述,通过给出三段时间背景来对诗歌的历史做了概括性的描述。

This question tests the reader’s summarization skills. The use of the word “actually” in describing what kind of people poets are, as well as other moments like this, may lead readers to selecting choice B or D, but the author is more information than trying to persuade readers. The author gives no indication that she loves poetry (B) or that people, students specifically (D), should write poems. Choice A is incorrect because the style and content of this paragraph do not match those of a foreword; forewords usually focus on the history or ideas of a specific poem to introduce it more fully and help it stand out against other poems. The author here focuses on several poems and gives broad statements. Instead, she tells a kind of story about poems, giving three very broad time periods in which to discuss them, thereby giving a brief history of poetry, as choice C states.

6. A
这个问题考察的是读者的概括能力。每段中心句的关键词(“oldest”,“Renaissance”,“modern”)可以告诉读者文章是按照时间顺序进行写作的。段落中的起始和结尾句都是总结概括性的陈述。选项B看似是合理的,但是由于两段中都提到了史诗,所以在每段中都使用了新类型的诗歌这个概念是错误的。选项C也可以被排除掉因为作者清楚的说到几种不同的诗人,派别和诗歌的类型。作者所写的内容从旧时期向新时期转变,从这个角度看,选项D看似是正确的,但是“so(that)”的使用使这个选项变成错误的,因为作者在文中没有任何内容表示出她很匆忙(每一段的长度都差不多)或者她更倾向于现代诗歌。

This question tests the reader’s summarization skills. Key words in the topic sentences of each of the paragraphs (“oldest,” “Renaissance,” “modern”) should give the reader an idea that the author is moving chronologically. The opening and closing sentence-paragraphs are broad and talk generally. Choice B seems reasonable, but epic poems are mentioned in two paragraphs, eliminating the idea that only new types of poems are used in each paragraph. Choice C is also easily eliminated because the author clearly mentions several different poets, groups of people, and poems. Choice D also seems reasonable, considering that the author does move from older forms of poetry to newer forms, but use of “so (that)” makes this statement false, for the author gives no indication that she is rushing (the paragraphs are about the same size) or that she prefers modern poetry.

7. D
这个问题考察的是读者对细节的观察能力。其中的关键词是“invented”- 它与Mesopotamians相连,这些人创造了文字,并且作为先驱,他们还发明使用了诗歌。其他几个选项针对了文章中不同的细节内容,例如Renaissance’s admiration of the Greeks (C)and that Be­owulf is in Old English(A)。选项B看上去是一个吸引人的选项,因为英雄的概念在古代和早期的文明时期是根深蒂固的。

This question tests the reader’s attention to detail. The key word is “invented”–it ties together the Mesopotamians, who invented the written word, and the fact that they, as the inventors, also invented and used poetry. The other selections focus on other details mentioned in the passage, such as that the Renaissance’s admiration of the Greeks (C) and that Beowulf is in Old English (A). Choice B may seem like an attractive answer because it is unlike the others and because the idea of heroes seems rooted in ancient and early civilizations.

8. B
这道题考察的是读者的词汇量和语境分析的能力。“Telling”是一个很普通的词,但是在这里的使用可能是一个读者不熟悉的方法,在这里它是一个形容词而不是通常的动名词形式。如果读者按照通常的方法来选择动词,那选项A就是一个明显正确的答案。但是如果读者知道这个词是以形容词的方式出现,那么就会避开选项A这个陷阱而选择选项D “wordy”,但是这个词和文章内容不符。选项C可以很容易被排除掉,因为它和文章或段落中的任何内容都没有联系。“Significant”(B)与文章的内容一致,特别是与后面句子中“give insight”这个词组有直接关系。

This question tests the reader’s vocabulary and contextualization skills. “Telling” is not an unusual word, but it may be used here in a way that is not familiar to readers, as an adjective rather than a verb in gerund form. Choice A may seem like the obvious answer to a reader looking for a verb to match the use they are familiar with. If the reader understands that the word is being used as an adjective and that choice A is a ploy, they may opt to select choice D, “wordy,” but it does not make sense in context. Choice C can be easily eliminated, and doesn’t have any connection to the paragraph or passage. “Significant” (B) does make sense contextually, especially relative to the phrase “give insight” used later in the sentence.

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Modified: May 2nd, 2018 May 2nd, 2018
Published: May 2nd, 2018