Basic Chemistry Flash Cards

Flashcards on basic concepts in chemistry including chemical reactions, elements, the periodic table, reactants and products, physical and chemical changes and more!

 

Chemical Compounds

_______ states that every chemical compound contains fixed and constant proportions (by weight) of its constituent elements.

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The Law of Definite Proportions states that every chemical compound contains fixed and constant proportions (by weight) of its constituent elements.

Note:  Although many experimenters had long assumed the truth of the principle in general, the French chemist Joseph-Louis Proust first accumulated conclusive evidence for it in a series of researches on the composition of many substances, especially the oxides of iron (1797).

Chemical Compounds
Laws of Science

___________________ states that when two elements combine with each other to form more than one compound, the weights of one element that combine with a fixed weight of the other are in a ratio of small whole numbers.

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The Law of Multiple Proportions states that when two elements combine with each other to form more than one compound, the weights of one element that combine with a fixed weight of the other are in a ratio of small whole numbers.

Laws of Science
Elements

_________ is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and appears on the Atomic Table as the letter ____.

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Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and appears on the Atomic Table as the letter O.

Elements
Chemical Reactions

A(n) ____ is a chemical involved in, but not changed by, a chemical reaction by which chemical bonds are ____ and reactions ___.

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catalyst is a chemical involved in, but not changed by, a chemical reaction by which chemical bonds are weakened and reactions accelerated.

Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions

___ is the series of chemical reactions resulting in the ___ of organic compounds, and ____ is the series of chemical reactions that ____ larger molecules.

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Anabolism is the series of chemical reactions resulting in the synthesis of organic compounds, and catabolism is a series of chemical reactions that break down larger molecules.

Chemical Reactions
Reactions

A ____ is a process that transforms one set of chemical substances to another; the substances used are known as ____ and those formed are _____.

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chemical change is a process that transforms one set of chemical substances to another; the substances used are known as reactants and those formed are products.

Reactions
E = mc2

The equation E = mc2 is based on the ______________________, and states that ______equals _____ times the _____________2.

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The equation E = mc2 is based on the Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy, and states that Energy equals Mass times the Velocity of light.

E = mc2
Reactants & Products

In an ____ reaction, the heat content of the products is ____ than the heat content of the reactants, while in an _____ reaction, the heat content of the products is ___ than the heat content of the reactants.

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In an Endothermic reaction, the heat content of the products is greater than the heat content of the reactants, while in an exothermic  reaction, the heat content of the products is less than the heat content of the reactants.

Because it is virtually impossible to measure the total energy of molecules, the experimental data typically used with reactions is the change in heat content known as enthalpy.

Reactants & Products
Reactants & Products

H = Hproducts – Hreactants. is the formula used to determine a _____.

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H = Hproducts  –  Hreactants is the formula used to determine a change in heat content.

Reactants & Products
Physical and Chemical Changes

What are the differences, if any, between chemical changes and physical changes?

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During a physical change, some aspect of the physical properties of matter are altered, but the identity of the substance remains constant. Chemical changes involve the alteration of both a substance’s composition and structure.

Note: Examples of physical changes include breaking glass, cutting wood and melting ice. Sometimes, the process can be easily reversed. Restoration of the original form is not possible following a chemical change.

Physical and Chemical Changes

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Modified: October 22nd, 2017
Published: October 22nd, 2017

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