First – some Quick Tips – Then some serious memory techniques
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Tip 1 – Over-learn the material
Rather than learning it just well enough to pass the test. If you’re like most students, you’re probably tempted to study material until you get a single error-free recitation of it. But to really memorize it well enough to ensure that you know it for the test, you need many error-free repetitions.
More about Repetition
Start with Repetition – End with an A
Tip 2 – Use the word-substitution method.
This is good for memorizing information which is difficult to visualize. For instance, the word thermodynamics could be turned into the two words, Thermos and dynamite. Now you can create a visual image of a piece of dynamite carrying its Thermos to work–to remind you that thermodynamics is the conversion of energy and heat to do work.
Tip 3 – Create your own handouts.
Did you ever wonder why your instructors give you handouts with maps, outlines, diagrams, etc.? It’s because visual aids help solidify information in your memory. So even if they don’t give you the necessary handouts, you can create the same effect by making your own handouts.
Tip 4 – Desecrate your textbooks.
Your textbooks are not collector’s items; they’re made to be used and abused. So underline, highlight and jot down important key words as you read through the chapters. Just don’t go overboard with it. Remember: emphasizing everything emphasizes nothing. How to Study from your Textbooks
Color your Notes
I have always been a very visual learner. I must see and then preform it physically to learn it and later master it. Using this method, I began writing my notes in colors. Every other page, or category, I would change the color. This technique is very useful when I study medications and drugs. I will usually write the category of medication, such as pain medications, in a certain color. For example, Morphine, Fentanyl, Ketorolac and Ketamine are medications which can be used for treating pain. I would write out all the information for these medications in red. In contrast, I would write antiemetic medications, Gravol, Maxeran, Zofran, in blue and so on and so forth. This strategy has been very effective when recalling which medications belong to certain classes. This strategy could be used in a variety of different areas of study.
Tip 5 – Create practice tests and take them before the real thing.
This does more than to check if you’re ready for the real exam. It’s a known fact that your memory is enhanced when you engage in retrieval practice (recalling data from your long-term memory). And taking a test is an excellent retrieval practice.
Tip 6 – Teach the material to somebody else.
Set an appointment with a friend, preferably from the same class, when you will teach him some challenging material from the unit and when he will teach you something else challenging. Knowing that you have to teach it to someone else makes the information more important to you. And it’s a known fact that we remember the things we consider important.
There are other things you can do to improve your memory, but these six should do a lot to make sure that your study time is effective time.
Connect the Parts!
Whenever two things are connected – write them down together, draw arrows or whatever – remember the connection! It is easier to remember two things when there is a connection.
Serious Memory Technique #1 - The Memory Cloud Method
Read it Twice
As you study for an exam, make sure that you read the material two or more times to ensure that you understand and have totally absorbed the material. From your reading, create a list that outlines the most important points in the material. The second time you read the material, your brain will naturally more easily absorb this important information.
Now expand the list by adding more points. Read again and your brain will more easily absorb these new points….and then you look for new points to add to your growing cloud.
Label Significant Points
After you’re sure you’ve finished reading and taking notes, create labels for all significant points. Rewrite the list in an ascend / descend order, with the most important items at or near the top. Number these items, because as you do so, your brain will associate each item with a number, giving you an improved chance of remembering that information.
Draw a Cloud with a Distinctive Shape
Finish your cloud by drawing in a physical cloud. Try to give it a distinctive shape that will be easy to remember. The cloud will serve as an additional aid to bring the points back to your remembrance. The cloud works on several levels. First, the act of taking notes and then re-reading solidifies information in your brain. The numbering adds another memory tag, and the visual element of the distinctive cloud gives you something to try to recall as you take the exam.
There are some memory techniques that work well with groups. The Cloud is not one of them. That’s because it relies on you taking notes on what YOU considered important. Plus it relies on you creating a cloud image that is memorable to you. This takes some practice, but once you get the hang of the memory cloud, you’ll find yourself coming back to the memory cloud over and over again.
Serious Memory Technique #2 - How to Memorize Using Mnemonics
Types of Mnemonics
Visual mnemonics involve creating visual images that sound like the information that is to be remembered. The image should be in some way related to the information. For example, if you are trying to remember that an event took place in Chillicothe, Ohio, you could visualize a cup of coffee sitting in a freezer (chilly coffee). The cup could have a picture of the state of Ohio on it to help you in remembering that Chillicothe is in Ohio.
This can be helpful in learning another language also. For example, rey is the Spanish word for king or monarch. You could visualize a crown with rays of light coming out from it. The Spanish verb caminar means to walk, so you could visualize an old El Camino model of car that is broken down, forcing you to walk.
Acronyms use the first letter of each word to be remembered to create an easy-to-remember word. A well-known example of this is ROY G. BIV. The letters stand for red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet, which are the colors of the spectrum in order.
o A variation of the acronym mnemonic is to use the letters to create a simple sentence. In the case of the spectrum colors, students in Britain often use Richard of York Gave Battle in Vain – as their memory device.
o A variation of the acronym mnemonic is to use the letters to create a simple sentence. In the case of the Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach represents Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (taxonomy classifications, often appear in biology).
o The order of sharps in music can be remembered with Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battles. Reverse that to Battles End and Down Goes Charles’ Father to get the order for flats.
o RAVEN stands for Remember Affect Verb Effect Noun. This is used to remember the difference between affect and effect.
Also known as Method of Loci, journey mnemonics simply involve taking a journey with the information. Basically, you walk through a familiar area and visualize the information in prominent locations. For example, you may walk through your home, from the entrance to your bedroom. Throughout your walk, you see famous paintings or sculptures along the walls, floor, or on the doors. By mentally retracing those steps during your art history exam, you are able to remember the artists and their works.
o This method does not have to be used with paintings, sculptures or other obviously visual items. You can combine this method with the visual technique to use it for any subject. For example, the crown with rays of light coming out of it may be hanging on your bedpost, while the El Camino is parked outside your window.
Rhymes and catchy phrases are an excellent mnemonic. They don’t have to be complicated and can be used for anything.
o I before E, except after C. This spelling mnemonic also comes in variations like I before E, except after C, and weird is just weird – or I before E, except after C, or when sounds like A, as in neighbor and weigh.
o For weather, the rhyme “Red skies at night, sailors delight; Red skies at morning, sailors take warning.”
o This group includes simple phrases like There are 3 e’s buried in the cemetery.
o For stalactites and stalagmites, remember that as the mites go up, the tites (tights) go down.
o Principle and principal – To remember which one you find in a school, use the saying, The princiPAL is my PAL.
o How I wish I could calculate pi. The number of letters in each word represents one digit of pi (How=3, I=1, etc.), giving you 3.141592.
Doesn’t have to Make Sense
Mnemonics can make studying a much easier process, regardless of your grade level. Mnemonics do not have to be logical, sensible or even related to your subject, and your favorites may not work for other people. The trick is to make sure your mnemonic is something you can remember.
In psychology, for example, the human brain and the different parts must be labelled. So I start with a list:
Parts of the Brain:
- Limbic System
- Corpus Callosum
If I can’t remember the list after writing it multiple times, I create my memory sentence. Once I know what I’ll need to label, I turn my focus to the diagram. Same approach, same repetition. It’s repetition of repetition. Go figure.
I use a website called mnemonic generator and it is incredibly effective for me. Sometimes, it is necessary to memorize certain things while studying and I have found using a mnemonic the most effective strategy. This has been very beneficial when studying pharmacology and having to memorize indications, contraindications and side effects of specific medications. I remember during my first emergency training course, we were required to verbalize the mandatory set of vital signs we needed to gain during our scenario testing. The list included; Skin (color and condition), level of consciousness, eyes (pupil reaction), respirations, pulse, temperature, blood pressure, blood glucose level, pulse oximetry reading. The mnemonic I came up with was “SLERP, THE BEST BEER POSSIBLE.” The first phrase “SLERP” represents the first five vital signs and the first letters of the remaining phrases correspond to the remainder. The more extravagant and ridiculous, the better, and this silly but effective mnemonic still pops into my brain to this day.